List of joint diseases
Sometimes a patient is diagnosed with a rare articular disease, but most often arthritis, arthrosis, bursitis, synovitis that developed on their background are detected. The factors provoking them have long been established, the forms of the course have been studied, and effective methods of treatment have been determined.
If inflammatory mediators, end or intermediate products of the breakdown of immune reactions, salt crystals, toxins or bone growths irritate the neuroreceptors of the synovial membranes, then arthralgia occurs. This is not a disease, but a complex of symptoms that accompany the pathology. Arthralgias, or joint pains, differ in localization, the number of joints involved, character, and intensity. They accompany pathologies of any origin:
To relieve painful sensations directly, the use of local or systemic analgesics is sufficient. But you can completely get rid of arthralgia only by carrying out the disease that provoked it.
This is the name of a degenerative-dystrophic disease that affects small, large joints. Arthrosis develops as a result of natural aging of the body, previous injuries, low physical activity, excessive exertion. Cartilage tissue wears out, and the bone plates grow and become deformed.
Ankylosing spondylitis, or ankylosing spondylitis, is a severe pathology that provokes ankylosis (partial or complete fusion of bone structures). The disease affects the intervertebral joints located in the cervical, thoracic, lumbar spine. As a result, the range of motion decreases, and subsequently the spinal column becomes completely motionless.
Ankylosing spondylitis is an autoimmune pathology of still unclear origin. Presumably, the reason for its development is the combination of the HLA-B27 antigen carriage and the penetration of infectious agents into the body.
Reiter’s syndrome is a rheumatic pathology. It affects not only one or several joints, but also the urogenital tract, the mucous membrane of the eye. The disease is diagnosed in 80% of cases in young men, women and children suffer from it much less often. Reiter’s disease is autoimmune, developing due to an inadequate response of the immune system to the introduction of pathogens of intestinal or urogenital infections – Shigella, Salmonella, Yersinia, ureaplasma.
Symptoms of pathology occur simultaneously or alternately. Urethritis is usually the first to manifest. Disorders of urination, scanty mucous discharge from the urethra are observed. The course of Reiter’s syndrome is also accompanied by joint pain, stiffness, signs of eye inflammation (conjunctivitis, iridocyclitis, uevitis).
This is a severe systemic pathology of unknown etiology. Presumably, Still’s disease develops as a result of penetration into the body, activation of cytomegalovirus, rubella, parainfluenza, Epstein-Barr, mycoplasma, and Escherichia viruses. The infectious component is indicated by characteristic symptoms – a fever, swollen lymph nodes, chills.
As Still’s disease progresses, the organs of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems are affected, and flat pink spots and papules form on the skin. If at the initial stage only one joint is damaged, then after a while the ankle, knee, wrist, elbow, hip, temporomandibular, interphalangeal, metatarsophalangeal joints are involved in the inflammatory process.
This is the name of an acute, subacute or chronic pathology, which is characterized by damage by the inflammatory process of the synovial bag. It accumulates exudate with impurities of pus, blood, fibrin or destroyed erythrocytes.