Surgery and cancer.

Brief information.

Tumor and surrounding tissue are surgically removed by the surgeon

Oncological surgery removes the tumor and surrounding tissue during the operation. Surgery is the oldest way to treat cancer. The reasons for the operation include: diagnosis of cancer, its removal, removal of side effects to see if it has spread to other organs. The best painkiller is

What types of surgeries are there?

  1. Surgical biopsy is a cut in, which removes part of the suspect area and is excised when the entire area is removed under suspicion.
  2. Staging - helps the physician determine the size of the tumour and its spread.
  3. deboning - removing the maximum number of tumors, usually before surgery.  
  4. In addition, a person undergoes radiation and chemotherapy after surgery.
  5. Pallination is a surgery that facilitates side effects caused by the tumor (blockage of the intestine, blockage in different parts of the body, pressure on the nerve, bleeding - helps suture dressing and others). 

Mitigation of consequences after removal of the tumor.

  1. Plastic surgery.

  2. Prevention. For example, removal of precancerous polyps or mastectomy - breast removal, ovaryectomy - is the removal of ovaries. 

Invasive surgery.


  • laparoscopic surgery - small incisions in the skin using a thin, illuminated tube with a camera
  • Mediaastinoscopy and thoracoscopy are the same in the chest
  • Laser surgery - uses a narrow beam of high-intensity light to remove cancerous tissue
  • Cryosurgery - liquid nitrogen for freezing and destruction of abnormal cells
  • Endoscopy - the doctor inserts the endoscope device into the mouth or rectum to examine the internal organs

mplex medicines legislation, to improve the coherence of the regulatory framework.


Automatic generic substitution (AGS) is the term for a scheme proposed by the Department of Health (DH) in 2009. AGS would have allowed pharmacists to dispense a generic version of a medication (a version with the same active ingredient), even if the doctor had written the prescription for a specific brand.

The Department of Health says no to AGS

After a consultation that resulted in written responses from 423 organisations and individuals, the DH announced, on 14 October 2010, that it had stopped plans to introduce AGS by pharmacists. The DH decided that concerns over patient safety were sufficiently grounded in fact and that it was therefore not appropriate to implement AGS.1


Taking Action Works!

The DH decided not to proceed with AGS as it reviewed the responses to the consultation and agreed that AGS was too great a risk to patients.

The correct use of medicines is important for achieving this goal, and the role of pharmacists is fully acknowledged in helping to achieve this. However, it is important that the relevant MHRA legislation is worded accurately to ensure that generic substitution or even therapeutic substitution by pharmacists is not inadvertently embedded in medicines legislation.

Thank you to those that acted last time - we are delighted that the DH listened to us and acted on our concerns.




Losing the right medication for the right patient

Norgine position paper

Norgine discussion. There is no Substitute

Outcome of DoH consultation on generic substitution

14th October 2010


Julie Hornby Winfield
[email protected]
+44 (0)1895 826642

Jennifer Garratt
[email protected]
+44 (0) 207 300 6240


  • The proposals to implement 'generic substitution' in primary care, further to the Pharmaceutical Price Regulation Scheme (PPRS) 2009. Response to the consultation.
  • MHRA Consolidation and review of UK medicines legislation. 25 October 2011. [Last accessed December 2011]

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Norgine Automatic Generic Substitution